Military Testing

MIL-STD-883 Testing

Microelectric Device Testing Procedures

MIL-STD-883 establishes uniform methods, controls, and procedures for testing microelectronic devices suitable for use within Military and Aerospace electronic systems including basic environmental tests to determine resistance to deleterious effects of natural elements and conditions surrounding military and space operations; mechanical and electrical tests; workmanship and training procedures; and such other controls and constraints as have been deemed necessary to ensure a uniform level of quality and reliability suitable to the intended applications of those devices. For the purpose of this standard, the term “devices” includes such items as monolithic, multichip, film and hybrid microcircuits, microcircuit arrays, and the elements from which the circuits and arrays are formed. This standard is intended to apply only to microelectronic devices.

MIL-STD-883, Test methods:
Specific examples of Test Methods called out in MIL-STD-883 are listed below:

Method Test Description


Barometric The barometric-pressure test is performed under conditions simulating the low atmospheric pressure encountered in the non-pressurized portions of aircraft and other vehicles in high-altitude flight. This test is intended primarily to determine the ability of component parts and materials to avoid voltage breakdown failures due to the reduced dielectric strength of air and other insulating materials at reduced pressures. Even when low pressures do not produce complete electrical breakdown, corona and its undesirable effects, including losses and ionization are intensified. The simulated high-altitude conditions of this test can also be employed to investigate the influence on components' operating characteristics, of other effects of reduced pressure, including changes in dielectric constants of materials, and decreased ability of thinner air to transfer heat away from heat-producing components.


Immersion This test is performed to determine the effectiveness of the seal of microelectronic devices. The immersion of the part under evaluation into liquid at widely different temperatures subjects it to thermal and mechanical stresses which will readily detect a defective terminal assembly, or a partially closed seam or molded enclosure. Defects of these types can result from faulty construction or from mechanical damage such as might be produced during physical or environmental tests. The immersion test is generally performed immediately following such tests because it will tend to aggravate any incipient defects in seals, seams, and bushings which might otherwise escape notice. This test is essentially a laboratory test condition, and the procedure is intended only as a measurement of the effectiveness of the seal following this test. The choice of fresh or salt water as a test liquid is dependent on the nature of the component part under test.


Insulation Resistance This test is to measure the resistance offered by the insulating members of a component part to an impressed direct voltage tending to produce leakage of current through or on the surface of these members. Insulation resistance measurements should not be considered the equivalent of dielectric withstanding voltage or electric breakdown tests. Clean, dry insulation may have a high insulation resistance, and yet possess a mechanical fault that would cause failure in the dielectric withstanding voltage test. Since insulating members composed of different materials or combinations of materials may have inherently different insulation resistances, the numerical value of measured insulation resistance cannot properly be taken as a direct measure of the degree of cleanliness or absence of deterioration.


Moisture Resistance The moisture resistance test is performed for the purpose of evaluating, in an accelerated manner, the resistance of component parts and constituent materials to the deteriorative effects of the high-humidity and heat conditions typical of tropical environments. Most tropical degradation results directly or indirectly from absorption of moisture vapor and films by vulnerable insulating materials, and from surface wetting of metals and insulation. These phenomena produce many types of deterioration, including corrosion of metals; constituents of materials; and detrimental changes in electrical properties. This test differs from the steady-state humidity test and derives its added effectiveness in its employment of temperature cycling, which provides alternate periods of condensation and drying essential to the development of the corrosion processes and, in addition, produces a "breathing" action of moisture into partially sealed containers. Increased effectiveness is also obtained by use of a higher temperature, which intensifies the effects of humidity


Steady State Life The steady-state life test is performed for the purpose of demonstrating the quality or reliability of devices subjected to the specified conditions over an extended time period. Life tests conducted within rated operating conditions
should be conducted for a sufficiently long test period to assure that results are not characteristic of early failures or "infant mortality," and periodic observations of results should be made prior to the end of the life test to provide an indication of any significant variation of failure rate with time.


Intermittent life The intermittent life test is performed for the purpose of determining a representative failure rate for microelectronic devices or demonstrating the quality or reliability of devices subjected to the specified conditions. It is intended for applications where the devices are exposed to cyclic variations in electrical stresses between the "on" and "off" condition and resultant cyclic variations in device and case temperatures.


Agree life The purpose of this test is to determine a representative failure rate for microelectronic devices or to demonstrate the quality or reliability of devices subjected to the specified conditions where test conditions include a combination of temperature cycling, on-off electrical stressing and vibration to simulate as closely as possible actual system applications and environments.
1008.2 Stabilization bake The purpose of this test is to determine the effect on microelectronic devices of storage at elevated temperatures without electrical stress applied. This method may also be used in a screening sequence or as a preconditioning treatment prior to the conduct of other tests. This test shall not be used to determine device failure rates for other than storage conditions. It may be desirable to make endpoint and, where applicable, intermediate measurements on a serialized device basis or on the basis of a histogram distribution by the total sample in order to increase the sensitivity of the test to parameter degradation or the progression of specific failure mechanisms with time and temperature.
1009.8 Salt Fog This test is proposed as an accelerated laboratory corrosion test simulating the effects of seacoast atmosphere on devices and package elements.
1010.8 Temperature Cycling This test is conducted to determine the resistance of a part to extremes of high and low temperatures, and to the effect of alternate exposures to these extremes.
1011.9 Thermal shock The purpose of this test is to determine the resistance of the part to sudden exposure to extreme changes in temperature and the effect of alternate exposures to these extremes.
1013 Dew Point The purpose of this test is to detect the presence of moisture trapped inside the microelectronic device package in sufficient quantity to adversely affect device parameters. The most sensitive indicator of moisture is device leakage current. This test specifies a lower temperature of -65°C for the normal dew point test. It may be desirable in some cases, where the presence of moisture in concentrations lower than that would be revealed at this lower temperature, to extend the lower temperature downward.
1014.10 Seal Test The purpose of this test is to determine the effectiveness (hermeticity) of the seal of microelectronic and semiconductor devices with designed internal cavities.
1015.10 Burn-in Test The burn-in test is performed for the purpose of screening or eliminating marginal devices, those with inherent defects or defects resulting from manufacturing aberrations which cause time and stress dependent failures. In the absence of burn-in, these defective devices would be expected to result in infant mortality or early lifetime failures under use conditions. Therefore, it is the intent of this screen to stress microcircuits at or above maximum rated operating conditions or to apply equivalent screening conditions, which will reveal time and stress dependent failure modes with equal or greater sensitivity.
1016.2 Life/reliability Characterization Tests The purpose of the life characterization tests is to determine: (1) the life distributions, (2) the life acceleration characteristics, and (3) the failure rate (λ) potential of the devices. For a discussion of failure rates and life test considerations, see MIL-HDBK-217. Failure rates are ordinarily determined either for the general qualification of devices or the production lines from which they are obtained or for the purpose of predicting the failure rates (or Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)) of equipment in which the devices are to be employed.
2001.3 Constant Acceleration This test is used to determine the effects of constant acceleration on microelectronic devices. It is an accelerated test designed to indicate types of structural and mechanical weaknesses not necessarily detected in shock and vibration tests. It may be used as a high-stress test to determine the mechanical limits of the package, internal metallization and lead system, die or substrate attachment, and other elements of the microelectronic device. By establishing proper stress levels, it may also be employed as an in-line 100 percent screen to detect and eliminate devices with lower than nominal mechanical strengths in any of the structural elements.
2002.5 Mechanical Shock The shock test is intended to determine the suitability of the devices for use in electronic equipment which may be subjected to moderately severe shocks as a result of suddenly applied forces or abrupt changes in motion produced by rough handling, transportation, or field operation. Shocks of this type may disturb operating characteristics or cause damage similar to that resulting from excessive vibration, particularly if the shock pulses are repetitive.
2005.2 Vibration Fatigue The purpose of this test is to determine the effect on the device of vibration in the frequency range specified.
2006.1 Vibration Noise The purpose of this test is to measure the amount of electrical noise produced by the device under vibration.
2007.3 Vibration, variable frequency The variable frequency vibration test is performed for the purpose of determining the effect on component parts of vibration in the specified frequency range. This is a destructive test.
2015.14 Resistance to Solvents The purpose of this test is to verify that the markings will not become illegible on the component parts when subjected to solvents. The solvents will not cause deleterious, mechanical or electrical damage or deterioration of the materials or finishes.
2026 Random Vibration This test is conducted for the purpose of determining the ability of the microcircuit; to withstand the dynamic stress exerted by random vibration applied between upper and lower frequency limits to simulate the vibration experienced in various service-field environments. Random vibration is more characteristic of modern-field environments produced by missiles, high-thrust jets, and rocket engines. In these types of environments, random vibration provides a more realistic test. For design purposes, however, a swept frequency sinusoidal test may yield more pertinent design information.
The user of the standard must also decide interdependently of the standard, how much additional test margin to allow for the uncertainty of test conditions and measurement in each test. Source: Wikipedia

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